History Of Special Education In Pakistan In PDF Format

History Of Special Education

The history of special education in Pakistan has evolved over the years, reflecting changes in societal attitudes, government policies, and international influences. Here is an overview of the key developments in the history of special education in Pakistan:

Pre-Partition Era:

Before the partition of India in 1947. There were limited provisions for special education in what is now Pakistan. Disabilities were often stigmatized. And there was little awareness of the need for specialized education for individuals with disabilities.

Early Post-Independence Period:

  • After gaining independence, Pakistan’s government began to recognize. The importance of education for all its citizens, including those with disabilities.
  • In 1951, the All Pakistan Welfare Association for the Blind (APWAB). Was established to advocate for the rights and education of blind individuals.

1960s and 1970s:

The 1960s saw some efforts to provide education for children with disabilities. However, these were mostly limited to urban areas and primarily focused on children with visual impairments.

The Special Education Department was created in 1975 under the Ministry of Education to oversee special education programs.


  • The 1980s marked a period of increased attention to special education in Pakistan.
  • In 1982, the government introduced the National Policy for the Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities. Which aimed to provide education and vocational training for individuals with disabilities.


  • The 1990s witnessed the expansion of special education services across the country. The government opened special education centers in various regions.
  • In 1992, Pakistan ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Which emphasized the rights of children with disabilities to education.

2000s and Beyond:

  • In 2003, the government passed the Disabled Persons (Employment and Rehabilitation) Ordinance. Which aimed to provide employment opportunities. And rehabilitation services to individuals with disabilities.
  • The Special Education Department continued to establish special education schools. Vocational training centers, and rehabilitation programs for children and adults with disabilities.
  • International organizations and NGOs have played a significant role in supporting special education initiatives in Pakistan.


Despite progress, Pakistan faces various challenges in providing inclusive and quality special education. These challenges include limited resources. Inadequate teacher training, and societal stigma. And the need for more accessible facilities.

Recent Developments:

As of my last knowledge, there were ongoing efforts to improve special education in Pakistan. It’s possible that there have been further developments and policy changes since then.

History Of Special Education In PDF Format

History Of SE PDF Format Free Download

In recent years, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of inclusive education. Which aims to integrate students with disabilities into mainstream schools. The government and various stakeholders continue to work toward improving the quality. And accessibility of special education services in Pakistan. That individuals with disabilities have equal opportunities for education and inclusion in society.

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